Nursing and human freedom.

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  • Author(s): Risjord, Mark
  • Source:
    Nursing Philosophy. Jan2014, Vol. 15 Issue 1, p35-45. 11p.
  • Document Type:
  • Additional Information
    • Subject Terms:
    • Author-Supplied Keywords:
      relational autonomy
    • Abstract:
      Debates over how to conceptualize the nursing role were prominent in the nursing literature during the latter part of the twentieth century. There were, broadly, two schools of thought. Writers like Henderson and Orem used the idea of a self-care deficit to understand the nurse as doing for the patient what he or she could not do alone. Later writers found this paternalistic and emphasized the importance of the patient's free will. This essay uses the ideas of positive and negative freedom to explore the differing conceptions of autonomy which are implicit in this debate. The notion of positive freedom has often been criticized as paternalistic, and the criticisms of self-care in the nursing literature echo criticisms from political philosophy. Recent work on relational autonomy and on the relationship between autonomy and identity are used to address these objections. This essay argues for a more nuanced conception of the obligation to support autonomy that includes both positive (freedom to) and negative (freedom from) dimensions. This conception of autonomy provides a moral foundation for conceptualizing nursing in something like Henderson's terms: as involving the duty to expand the patient's capacities. The essay concludes by generalizing the lesson. Respect for autonomy on the part of any health care provider requires both respect for the patient's choices and a commitment to expand the patient's ability to actualize their choices. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      RISJORD, M. Nursing and human freedom. Nursing Philosophy, [s. l.], v. 15, n. 1, p. 35–45, 2014. DOI 10.1111/nup.12026. Disponível em: Acesso em: 1 dez. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Risjord M. Nursing and human freedom. Nursing Philosophy. 2014;15(1):35-45. doi:10.1111/nup.12026
    • APA:
      Risjord, M. (2014). Nursing and human freedom. Nursing Philosophy, 15(1), 35–45.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Risjord, Mark. 2014. “Nursing and Human Freedom.” Nursing Philosophy 15 (1): 35–45. doi:10.1111/nup.12026.
    • Harvard:
      Risjord, M. (2014) ‘Nursing and human freedom’, Nursing Philosophy, 15(1), pp. 35–45. doi: 10.1111/nup.12026.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Risjord, M 2014, ‘Nursing and human freedom’, Nursing Philosophy, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 35–45, viewed 1 December 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Risjord, Mark. “Nursing and Human Freedom.” Nursing Philosophy, vol. 15, no. 1, Jan. 2014, pp. 35–45. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/nup.12026.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Risjord, Mark. “Nursing and Human Freedom.” Nursing Philosophy 15, no. 1 (January 2014): 35–45. doi:10.1111/nup.12026.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Risjord M. Nursing and human freedom. Nursing Philosophy [Internet]. 2014 Jan [cited 2020 Dec 1];15(1):35–45. Available from: