Oseltamivir Carboxylate, the Active Metabolite of Oseltamivir Phosphate (Tamiflu), Detected in Sewage Discharge and River Water in Japan.

Item request has been placed! ×
Item request cannot be made. ×
loading   Processing Request
  • Additional Information
    • Subject Terms:
    • Subject Terms:
    • Abstract:
      Background: Oseltamivir phosphate (OP; Tamiflu) is a prodrug of the anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) and has been developed for the treatment and prevention of both A and B strains of influenza. The recent increase in OP resistance in influenza A virus (H1N1; commonlly called "swine flu") has raised questions about the widespread use of Tamiflu in seasonal epidemics and the potential ecotoxicologic risk associated with its use in the event of a pandemic. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to develop an analytical method for quantitative determination of OC in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent and receiving river water, and to investigate the occurrence of OC in STP effluent and river water in Japan during a seasonal flu outbreak. Methods: We developed an analytical method based on solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Using this method, we analyzed samples from three sampling campaigns conducted during the 2008-2009 flu season in Kyoto City, Japan. Results: The highest concentration of OC detected in STP discharge was 293.3 ng/L from a conventional activated-sludge-based STP; however, we detected only 37.9 ng/L from an advanced STP with ozonation as a tertiary treatment. In the receiving river water samples, we detected 6.6-190.2 ng/L OC, during the peak of the flu season. Conclusion: OC is present in STP effluent and river water only during the flu season. Ozonation as tertiary treatment in STP will substantially reduce the OC load in STP effluent during an influenza epidemic or pandemic. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
      Copyright of Environmental Health Perspectives is the property of Superintendent of Documents and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)