Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly.

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  • Additional Information
    • Subject Terms:
    • Subject Terms:
    • Abstract:
      Global temperatures are known to have varied over the past 1500 years, but the spatial patterns have remained poorly defined. We used a global climate proxy network to reconstruct surface temperature patterns over this interval. The Medieval period is found to display warmth that matches or exceeds that of the past decade in some regions, but which falls well below recent levels globally. This period is marked by a tendency for La Niña--like conditions in the tropical Pacific. The coldest temperatures of the Little Ice Age are observed over the interval 1400 to 1700 C.E., with greatest cooling over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere continents. The patterns of temperature change imply dynamical responses of climate to natural radiative forcing changes involving El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation-Arctic Oscillation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
      Copyright of Science is the property of American Association for the Advancement of Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
    • ISSN:
      0036-8075
    • Accession Number:
      10.1126/science.1177303
    • Accession Number:
      47192397
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      MANN, M. E. et al. Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly. Science, [s. l.], v. 326, n. 5957, p. 1256–1260, 2009. DOI 10.1126/science.1177303. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=hch&AN=47192397. Acesso em: 2 dez. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Mann ME, Zhihua Zhang, Rutherford S, et al. Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly. Science. 2009;326(5957):1256-1260. doi:10.1126/science.1177303
    • APA:
      Mann, M. E., Zhihua Zhang, Rutherford, S., Bradley, R. S., Hughes, M. K., Shindell, D., Ammann, C., Faluvegi, G., & Ni, F. (2009). Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly. Science, 326(5957), 1256–1260. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1177303
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Mann, Michael E., Zhihua Zhang, Scott Rutherford, Raymond S. Bradley, Malcolm K. Hughes, Drew Shindell, Caspar Ammann, Greg Faluvegi, and Fenbiao Ni. 2009. “Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly.” Science 326 (5957): 1256–60. doi:10.1126/science.1177303.
    • Harvard:
      Mann, M. E. et al. (2009) ‘Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly’, Science, 326(5957), pp. 1256–1260. doi: 10.1126/science.1177303.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Mann, ME, Zhihua Zhang, Rutherford, S, Bradley, RS, Hughes, MK, Shindell, D, Ammann, C, Faluvegi, G & Ni, F 2009, ‘Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly’, Science, vol. 326, no. 5957, pp. 1256–1260, viewed 2 December 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Mann, Michael E., et al. “Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly.” Science, vol. 326, no. 5957, Nov. 2009, pp. 1256–1260. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1126/science.1177303.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Mann, Michael E., Zhihua Zhang, Scott Rutherford, Raymond S. Bradley, Malcolm K. Hughes, Drew Shindell, Caspar Ammann, Greg Faluvegi, and Fenbiao Ni. “Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly.” Science 326, no. 5957 (November 27, 2009): 1256–60. doi:10.1126/science.1177303.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Mann ME, Zhihua Zhang, Rutherford S, Bradley RS, Hughes MK, Shindell D, et al. Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly. Science [Internet]. 2009 Nov 27 [cited 2020 Dec 2];326(5957):1256–60. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=hch&AN=47192397