'The Free Sale of Opium': The Reaction of Russian Orthodox Churchmen to Freedom of Conscience, 1864–1905.

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  • Author(s): White, James
  • Source:
    European History Quarterly. Apr2019, Vol. 49 Issue 2, p203-230. 28p.
  • Document Type:
    Article
  • Additional Information
    • Subject Terms:
    • Author-Supplied Keywords:
      church and state
      freedom of conscience
      religious freedoms
      Russian Orthodox Church
      toleration
    • Abstract:
      This article examines discussions of freedom of conscience and other religious liberties in the Orthodox ecclesiastical press between the Great Reforms of the 1860s and the first Russian Revolution in 1905. Avoiding highly influential and well-known religious thinkers, this piece instead focuses on forgotten ordained and lay writers who used their positions in the Church's hierarchy and educational establishments to reach a wide audience. At the heart of their views was a paradox: while frequently defining Christ as freedom and rejecting coercion in religious matters, these churchmen assailed freedom of conscience as morally dangerous and socially destructive. To explain this paradox and reveal why freedom of conscience allegedly posed such a threat, the article situates the writers in the institutional, intellectual, and political contexts of both the Church and the Russian Empire. Examining this is useful not only because it provides an example of how Russian Orthodox churchmen theologically justified the status quo of the empire's religious policy but also because it demonstrates how members of a state church perceived the shift of religion away from collective confessional ascription towards the individual, private sphere. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
      Copyright of European History Quarterly is the property of Sage Publications, Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
    • ISSN:
      0265-6914
    • Accession Number:
      10.1177/0265691419833613
    • Accession Number:
      135769276
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      WHITE, J. “The Free Sale of Opium”: The Reaction of Russian Orthodox Churchmen to Freedom of Conscience, 1864–1905. European History Quarterly, [s. l.], v. 49, n. 2, p. 203–230, 2019. DOI 10.1177/0265691419833613. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=hch&AN=135769276. Acesso em: 24 nov. 2020.
    • AMA:
      White J. “The Free Sale of Opium”: The Reaction of Russian Orthodox Churchmen to Freedom of Conscience, 1864–1905. European History Quarterly. 2019;49(2):203-230. doi:10.1177/0265691419833613
    • APA:
      White, J. (2019). “The Free Sale of Opium”: The Reaction of Russian Orthodox Churchmen to Freedom of Conscience, 1864–1905. European History Quarterly, 49(2), 203–230. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265691419833613
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      White, James. 2019. “‘The Free Sale of Opium’: The Reaction of Russian Orthodox Churchmen to Freedom of Conscience, 1864–1905.” European History Quarterly 49 (2): 203–30. doi:10.1177/0265691419833613.
    • Harvard:
      White, J. (2019) ‘“The Free Sale of Opium”: The Reaction of Russian Orthodox Churchmen to Freedom of Conscience, 1864–1905’, European History Quarterly, 49(2), pp. 203–230. doi: 10.1177/0265691419833613.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      White, J 2019, ‘“The Free Sale of Opium”: The Reaction of Russian Orthodox Churchmen to Freedom of Conscience, 1864–1905’, European History Quarterly, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 203–230, viewed 24 November 2020, .
    • MLA:
      White, James. “‘The Free Sale of Opium’: The Reaction of Russian Orthodox Churchmen to Freedom of Conscience, 1864–1905.” European History Quarterly, vol. 49, no. 2, Apr. 2019, pp. 203–230. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1177/0265691419833613.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      White, James. “‘The Free Sale of Opium’: The Reaction of Russian Orthodox Churchmen to Freedom of Conscience, 1864–1905.” European History Quarterly 49, no. 2 (April 2019): 203–30. doi:10.1177/0265691419833613.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      White J. “The Free Sale of Opium”: The Reaction of Russian Orthodox Churchmen to Freedom of Conscience, 1864–1905. European History Quarterly [Internet]. 2019 Apr [cited 2020 Nov 24];49(2):203–30. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=hch&AN=135769276