Molly Maguires.

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      The Molly Maguires were an Irish and Irish diaspora secret society active in Ireland, England (mainly Liverpool), and the United States in the nineteenth century. They are most well known for their operations in the anthracite coal region of eastern Pennsylvania from 1854 to 1877. The Molly Maguires of America adopted their name from one of the Ribbon societies of Ireland that had waged a campaign of intimidation and attacks against landlords and process servers between 1835 and 1855. The Pennsylvania Molly Maguires consisted of similarly disfranchised Irishmen, but there was no direct connection between the two organizations. The American organization was associated with the Ancient Order of Hibernians, a benevolent society having branches throughout North America and Great Britain. Membership in the order required a person to be of Irish birth or descent and a Roman Catholic with Roman Catholic parents. Despite its links to Catholicism, the Order of Hibernians was a secret society and thus under official ban of the Catholic Church.