Pius X Becomes Pope.

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    • Abstract:
      Since the Enlightenment, the Roman Church—and organized religion in general—had been weakened by rationalism and the growth of science and democracy. Pius IX’s flirtation with liberalism in the 1840’s was transformed into staunch conservatism after he was forced to flee Rome in 1848 and was restored with the help of a French army in 1849. For the remainder of his pontificate, Pius IX worked to condemn Modernism, especially in the Syllbus Errorum (1864; Syllabus of Errors), and assert papal authority. In 1870 and 1871, Pius IX dominated the First Vatican Council, which promulgated the doctrine of papal infallibility. Pius IX was succeeded by Pope Leo XIII, who was more sympathetic to the trends of his time; he launched an aggressive campaign for social reforms described in Rerum Novarum (1891; The Condition of Labor).