Pius IX Issues the Syllabus of Errors.

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    • Abstract:
      During the nineteenth century, many nationalists sought to replace the dominion of kings who ruled by divine right with constitutionally based national states united through common ties of geography, cultural traditions, and ethnic composition. Nationalists in Italy, however, faced a particularly formidable task. That land had not known unity since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century. By 1848, it was divided among four major powers, three of which were adamantly opposed to the trend toward national unity and democracy.