What Geoscience Experts and Novices Look At, and What They See, When Viewing Data Visualizations

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  • Source:
    Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education, v3 n1 p27-58 Jun 2016. 32 pp.
  • Language:
    English
  • Publication Type:
    Journal Articles; Reports - Research
  • Additional Information
    • Author(s):
    • Availability:
      Full Text from ERIC Available online: https://eric.ed.gov/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=EJ1103064
      Clute Institute. 6901 South Pierce Street Suite 239, Littleton, CO 80128. Tel: 303-904-4750; Fax: 303-978-0413; e-mail: Staff@CluteInstitute.com; Web site: http://www.cluteinstitute.com
    • Peer Reviewed:
      Y
    • ISSN:
      2374-6246
    • Subject Terms:
    • Subject Terms:
    • Subject Terms:
    • Keyword:
      Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), Hidden Figures Test, New York
    • Abstract:
      This study examines how geoscience experts and novices make meaning from an iconic type of data visualization: shaded relief images of bathymetry and topography. Participants examined, described, and interpreted a global image, two high-resolution seafloor images, and 2 high-resolution continental images, while having their gaze direction eye-tracked and their utterances and gestures videoed. In addition, experts were asked about how they would coach an undergraduate intern on how to interpret this data. Not unexpectedly, all experts were more skillful than any of the novices at describing and explaining what they were seeing. However, the novices showed a wide range of performance. Along the continuum from weakest novice to strongest expert, proficiency developed in the following order: making qualitative observations of salient features, making simple interpretations, making quantitative observations. The eye-tracking analysis examined how the experts and novices invested 20 seconds of unguided exploration, after the image came into view but before the researcher began to ask questions. On the cartographic elements of the images, experts and novices allocated their exploration time differently: experts invested proportionately more fixations on the latitude and longitude axes, while students paid more attention to the color bar. In contrast, within the parts of the image showing the actual geomorphological data, experts and novices on average allocated their attention similarly, attending preferentially to the geologically significant landforms. Combining their spoken responses with their eye-tracking behavior, we conclude that the experts and novices are looking in the same places but "seeing" different things.
    • Abstract:
      As Provided
    • Number of References:
      52
    • Sponsoring Agency:
      National Science Foundation (NSF)
    • Contract Number:
      1138616
    • Contract Number:
      1138619
    • Contract Number:
      1331505
    • Physical Description:
      32
    • Education Level:
      Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
    • Journal Code:
      APR2018
    • Publication Date:
      2016
    • Accession Number:
      EJ1103064
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      KASTENS, K. A. et al. What Geoscience Experts and Novices Look At, and What They See, When Viewing Data Visualizations. Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education, [s. l.], v. 3, n. 1, p. 27–58, 2016. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=eric&AN=EJ1103064. Acesso em: 30 out. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Kastens KA, Shipley TF, Boone AP, Straccia F. What Geoscience Experts and Novices Look At, and What They See, When Viewing Data Visualizations. Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education. 2016;3(1):27-58. Accessed October 30, 2020. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=eric&AN=EJ1103064
    • APA:
      Kastens, K. A., Shipley, T. F., Boone, A. P., & Straccia, F. (2016). What Geoscience Experts and Novices Look At, and What They See, When Viewing Data Visualizations. Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education, 3(1), 27–58.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Kastens, Kim A., Thomas F. Shipley, Alexander P. Boone, and Frances Straccia. 2016. “What Geoscience Experts and Novices Look At, and What They See, When Viewing Data Visualizations.” Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education 3 (1): 27–58. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=eric&AN=EJ1103064.
    • Harvard:
      Kastens, K. A. et al. (2016) ‘What Geoscience Experts and Novices Look At, and What They See, When Viewing Data Visualizations’, Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education, 3(1), pp. 27–58. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=eric&AN=EJ1103064 (Accessed: 30 October 2020).
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Kastens, KA, Shipley, TF, Boone, AP & Straccia, F 2016, ‘What Geoscience Experts and Novices Look At, and What They See, When Viewing Data Visualizations’, Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 27–58, viewed 30 October 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Kastens, Kim A., et al. “What Geoscience Experts and Novices Look At, and What They See, When Viewing Data Visualizations.” Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education, vol. 3, no. 1, June 2016, pp. 27–58. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=eric&AN=EJ1103064.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Kastens, Kim A., Thomas F. Shipley, Alexander P. Boone, and Frances Straccia. “What Geoscience Experts and Novices Look At, and What They See, When Viewing Data Visualizations.” Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education 3, no. 1 (June 1, 2016): 27–58. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=eric&AN=EJ1103064.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Kastens KA, Shipley TF, Boone AP, Straccia F. What Geoscience Experts and Novices Look At, and What They See, When Viewing Data Visualizations. Journal of Astronomy & Earth Sciences Education [Internet]. 2016 Jun 1 [cited 2020 Oct 30];3(1):27–58. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=eric&AN=EJ1103064