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  • Author(s): Sanford, Sally, author
  • Source:
    Oxford Music Online, 2014
  • Subject Terms:
  • Document Type:
    Reference Entry
  • Language:
  • Additional Information
    • Publication Information:
      Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.
    • Publication Date:
    • Abstract:
      The quintessential human instrument, capable of unsurpassed tonal and melodic expressivity and nuance. Vocal sounds reflect individual anatomical differences as well as cultural, stylistic, and technique influences. The vocal mechanism is made up primarily of cartilaginous and other soft tissues. Vocal production involves coordination of complex physiologic processes, engaging the lungs and respiratory muscles (wind source), the vocal folds (vibrator/oscillator; also called vocal cords), the pharynx, mouth, nasal and head cavities (resonator), as well as the tongue, lips, teeth, and palate (articulator). The lips also radiate sound outward. The great capacity for variation in each of these areas, and for variation in more than one area at the same time, leads to a strong association of the voice with individual identity. 1. Phonation and vocal mechanism. 2. Acoustical analysis of the voice. Phonation refers to the production of sound waves in the larynx (voice box). Phonation takes place during exhalation as the respiratory system supplies air through the vibrating vocal folds, which interrupt and break the air stream into smaller units or puffs of air. The resulting sounds are filtered through a resonator system and then transmitted outside the mouth. Singing, speaking, humming, and other vocal sounds usually involve practised regulation of air pressure and breath-stream mechanics, and balanced control of the inspiratory (chiefly the diaphragm) and expiratory muscles (chiefly the abdominal and intercostal muscles). This muscular antagonism requires some degree of experience or training to develop. Various methods are used in breathing for singing (often termed ‘breath support’ in Western vocal pedagogy) and different breath strategies will affect the vocal timbre and intensity. Singing tends to require greater lung capacity than normal speech, because musical phrases tend to be of longer duration than spoken phrases. Singing also often entails much higher air pressure than speech, sometimes reaching 40 to 50 cm (water gauge) at the top of the soprano range compared to a range of 4 to 9 cm for normal speech. The airflow is controlled by opening and closing the glottis, the space between the vocal folds. With sufficient subglottal air pressure, if the vocal folds are close enough, the Bernoulli effect will assist in their adduction....
    • ISBN:
    • Accession Number:
    • Online Access: https://doi.org/10.1093/omo/9781561592630.013.90000351003
    • Accession Number:
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      SANFORD, S. author. Voice. Oxford Music Online, [s. l.], 2014. DOI 10.1093/omo/9781561592630.013.90000351003. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsomo&AN=edsomo.90000351003. Acesso em: 26 out. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Sanford S author. Voice. Oxford Music Online. 2014. doi:10.1093/omo/9781561592630.013.90000351003
    • APA:
      Sanford, S. author. (2014). Voice. Oxford Music Online. https://doi.org/10.1093/omo/9781561592630.013.90000351003
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Sanford, Sally, author. 2014. “Voice.” Oxford Music Online. doi:10.1093/omo/9781561592630.013.90000351003.
    • Harvard:
      Sanford, S. author (2014) ‘Voice’, Oxford Music Online. doi: 10.1093/omo/9781561592630.013.90000351003.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Sanford, S author 2014, ‘Voice’, Oxford Music Online, viewed 26 October 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Sanford, Sally, author. “Voice.” Oxford Music Online, 2014. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1093/omo/9781561592630.013.90000351003.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Sanford, Sally, author. “Voice.” Oxford Music Online, 2014. doi:10.1093/omo/9781561592630.013.90000351003.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Sanford S author. Voice. Oxford Music Online [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2020 Oct 26]; Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsomo&AN=edsomo.90000351003