Dose and Time Dependency of Inflammatory Responses in the Mouse Lung to Urban Air Coarse, Fine, and Ultrafine Particles From Six European Cities.

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    • Abstract:
      We investigated the dose and time dependency of inflammatory and cytotoxic responses to size-segregated urban air particulate samples in the mouse lung. Coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5-0.2), and ultrafine (PM0.2) particles were collected in six European cities (Duisburg, Prague, Amsterdam, Helsinki, Barcelona, Athens) in selected seasons using a modified Harvard high-volume cascade impactor. Healthy C57Bl/6J mice were intratracheally exposed to the particulate samples in a 24-h dose-response study (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) and in 4-, 12-, and 24-h time course studies (10 mg/kg). After the exposures, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation and tissue damage: total cell number, cell differential, total protein, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cytokine (tumor necrosis alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and keratinocyte-derived chemokine [KC]) concentrations. In general, PM10-2.5 samples had higher inflammatory activity than PM2.5-0.2 samples. PM0.2 samples showed negligible inflammatory activity. PM10-2.5 and PM2.5-0.2 samples caused large increases in BALF cytokine concentrations at 4 h, but not at 12 or 24 h, after exposure. The BALF total cell number and total protein concentrations increased significantly at 12 h for both the PM10-2.5 and PM2.5-0.2 samples, but only PM10-2.5 samples produced consistent, significant increases at 24 h after exposure. There was more heterogeneity in BALF cytokine and neutrophil cell number responses to PM2.5-0.2 samples than to PM10-2.5 samples between the sampling campaigns. Thus, particle size, sources, and atmospheric transformation processes affect the inflammatory activity and response duration of urban air particulate matter in the mouse lung. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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