Back to basics: review on vitamin D and respiratory viral infections including COVID-19.

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    • Abstract:
      As the scientific community is in a marathon in finding out the cure for COVID-19, in this crisis, it is essential for the physicians not to forget about the basics. Due to the pandemic crisis, in many nursing homes and hospitals, there established new policies on decreasing unnecessary medications to minimize cross-contamination. Sometimes these policies are making providers avoid essential drugs such as Vitamins, including Vitamin D. In this paper, we try to emphasize the importance of Vitamin D in COVID-19 and respiratory viral patients. Vitamin D helps in decreasing the 'pro-inflammatory cytokines' in the lungs and acts in immunomodulatory function, and 'also it will increase the anti-inflammatory, antiviral responses of the respiratory epithelial cells during infection.' Due to the highly contagious nature of COVID-19 and the increased morbidity and mortality with no appropriate therapy and vaccine, one must be cautious and do everything to help COVID-19 patients. In hospitals and other health care settings to decrease cross-contamination, holding other non-essential medications is taking place. Discontinuing Vitamins could increase the mortality and morbidity of those affected, especially in deficient/insufficient individuals. Obtaining serum 25 (OH) D levels in all patients with viral respiratory infections, especially COVID-19, could help in the detection and treatment of Vitamin D deficiency and potentially decrease recovery time and improve outcome. Even though evidence suggests that vitamin D has the anti-inflammatory, antiviral properties, randomized double-blinded controlled trials are needed to verify this further, and to understand Vitamin D and COVID-19 better. Vitamin D receptor-VDR; 25(OH)D- 25 hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25 (OH)D-1,25 dihydroxy Vitamin D; 1α,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D-1,25[OH]2 D or calcitriol; IU- International Units; Interferons stimulated genes- ISG; ARI- acute respiratory infection; RSV- respiratory syncytial virus; RTI- Respiratory tract infections; COPD-Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; BMI-Basal metabolic index; USA-USA. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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