Warley's work focuses on male-to-male violent juvenile encounters. Using a multi-perspective framework that encompasses strain theory, social disorganization theory, the subculture of violence thesis, as well as theories of criminal lethality and compulsory masculinity, background characteristics are assessed to delineate structural-cultural factors that dispose adolescent males to violence. Consideration is also given to crime characteristics that differentiate impulsive killing from premeditated homicide. Disentangling weapon instrumentality effect from offenders'intentionality is a primary concern. Results confirm theoretical predictions and empirical literature regarding male honor contest violence, as well as the independent affect of specific intent to do harm on incident outcome (i.e. aggravated assault vs. homicide) in violent, juvenile male-to-male encounters.