In Athens, most remains of the ancient city-wall were revealed during rescue excavations; as a result, documentation is scattered and fragmented. This book systematically investigates all published data, revealing the history and the nature of the surviving remains of this significant monument. The book provides an analysis of the ancient literary sources, the western travellers'accounts, and the history of archaeological research on the circuit walls of ancient Athens. It collects, records, and maps all archaeological data from systematic and rescue excavations of the physical remains of the wall as it evolved over eleven centuries and through more than a dozen construction phases. It reviews issues relating to structure, chronology and topography of the ancient city wall, as well as to the management of its remains by the state authorities. The enormous amount of primary evidence makes the book essential reading for scholars of the topography of ancient Athens. This monograph also aspires to increase community awareness of cultural heritage in everyday urban contexts, as the wall has been preserved in a number of ways: in basements of buildings, reburied in situ, in the open air or beneath glass floors.